about the editor

The Strange Story of How I Came to Translate and Edit a Russian WWII Memoir

In 2002, I was working on a public radio story at a “Women in Aviation” conference in Nashville, TN, where I ran into a couple of boisterous Russian lady pilots–one of them, an aerobatic champion named Galina Korchuganova, and another (Galina Brok-Beltsova), a WWII veteran bombardier.

Drinking with the veterans in Moscow
Drinking with the veterans in Moscow—the editor’s eyes have gone crazed

I was floored. Women had flown combat missions during WWII in the Soviet Union? I had to know more. I had met some of the WASP (Women Airforce Service Pilots)–American women who ferried military aircraft during the war. But discovering that there were hundreds of women–both in men’s regiments and in three dedicated women’s regiments–flying bombers and fighters on the Soviet side was a revelation to me. I hastily attempted to revive my rusty college Russian and spent the rest of the weekend getting to know our guests.

In 2005, I finally returned to Russia–my first trip there since a semester abroad in 1991. I wanted to meet more of the Soviet WWII (or “Great Patriotic War” as they call it) veterans at a conference hosted by “Aviatrissa,” a Moscow women flyers’ club. Serendipitous events led me to Anna Timofeyeva-Yegorova, a much-decorated veteran who flew Po-2s in a liaison regiment early in the war and eventually became a flight leader in the Il-2 “Shturmovik” ground-attack plane.

Over a wonderful dinner in Yegorova’s small Moscow apartment (in which we all drank homemade vodka out of a canteen), my new friend Margarita and I signed an agreement with Yegorova to translate and edit her memoir, which she had titled, I Am ‘Birchtree.’ How do you hear me?

Me, Anna Yegorova, and Margarita at dinner
Me, Anna Yegorova, and Margarita at dinner


Margarita, a professor of English in a Moscow institute, had already done her part–she spent two years rendering a literal translation as close to the original Russian as possible. Because I’m not a professional translator or a native Russian speaker, Margarita’s work was invaluable to me as I initially scanned the English text to pick out the main story thread, and later, whenever I ran across archaic Russian phrases, cultural references, or idioms I couldn’t figure out.

It struck me later that our method was just a more rudimentary form of Pevear and Volokhonsky’s–those celebrated translators of the Russian classics. Like them, a Russian native speaker with a very good knowledge of English takes the stage first, followed by an English-speaking writer with an imperfect understanding of Russian–and a strong desire to spend many hundreds of hours locked away with a stack of dictionaries and historical tomes.

My job as translator #2 and editor was to re-tell Yegorova’s story, hopefully in a way that would spark an American audience’s fascination with a topic unfamiliar to many of us in the West. We tend to know much more about our own story of World War II, but little of the Soviet experience–a tale of genocide and destruction so epic in scale that we Americans can scarcely fathom it. Casualty estimates vary widely, but total Soviet wartime deaths most likely exceeded 25,000,000 (as compared to U.S. losses, which were fewer than 500,000). Which is not to in any way sell short the contributions of American soldiers and airmen–but only to give some sense of the utter catastrophe that Russians, Ukrainians, Belorussians, and other Soviet peoples suffered during that conflict.

The path to making that story palatable for Americans and other English-speakers was multifold. First, cutting the story from more than 400 pages to a modest 250 meant removing parts of Yegorova’s narrative that seemed to stray from the main story line or that didn’t directly involve her. I re-ordered some sections and consolidated some chapters to make the chronology easier to follow. And stylistically, my goal was to render the language smooth and just slightly archaic-feeling, the dialogue natural, and her voice clear and consistent.

As I read Yegorova’s story, I found myself initially troubled by some of the politically-charged  rhetoric that arose throughout. I gradually came to understand many of the reasons for it, which I address in the “Soviet World” page of this site. But I realized that many Western readers would have the same questions I did: Was Yegorova a “true believer” in Stalinism? Did she really believe in the system she defended and in her strangely fervent declarations of patriotism? And what’s the real story behind the Soviet version of history she described, the only version she could have known?

As for philosophical questions of objective truth and belief, I chose to leave Yegorova’s words alone. Her conflicted loyalty, patriotism, and feelings of betrayal, I thought, would offer readers a fascinating glimpse into the mind of someone unfortunate enough to love a country gripped by generations of totalitarian control.

But I thought it might be instructive to add a few footnotes about historical events and cultural references that Yegorova felt no need to explain to a Russian. Some of them I included simply to add information–details about Russian and German military aircraft, for example. But in other cases, I felt it necessary to try and separate Soviet mythology from history–no easy task when it comes to politically fraught events like the Warsaw Uprising. If my footnotes in any way approximated the truth of those events, I have the work of many great historians to thank: Norman Davies and Catherine Merridale, Reina Pennington and Robert Conquest, Alexander Werth and David Glantz, and many, many more.

Fortunately, Slavica Publishers, a small academic house affiliated with Indiana University, agreed to release the finished product. For that I owe many thanks to the extremely hard-working editors there, Vicki Polansky and George Fowler. Thanks also to pilot Elizabeth Brock, who launched this endeavor and recruited me; to my esteemed teammate Margarita; to the marvelous Austin Gray, who created the stunning book jacket artwork; to the University of North Texas for their archive of World War II-era maps; to journalist Amy Strebe for writing a marvelous foreword; to my retired English-teacher mom who is a copy-editing genius and my dad who was able to explain “oerlikons” and other military hardware to me; and especially to my dear Russian friends Lydia, Inna and Victor, who witnessed the war firsthand as children, and who patiently answered hundreds of my questions not only about Russian language and history–but about what it felt like to live through it all.

Lt. Anna Yegorova
Lt. Anna Yegorova

Most of all, I must thank Anna Alexandrovna (Yegorova)–for living this terrible, wonderful life of hers, for surviving the war to tell us the tale, and for having the courage to share it, in a country that likes to keep its secrets, at any cost. And I thank her for allowing me to have a tiny hand in the telling of it, which has given me such immense pleasure.

—Kim Green



See also: 

Flying for Her Country: The American and Soviet Women Military Pilots of World War II

Russian War Hero Finally Gets the Attention She Deserves (Nashville Scene)

This is your brain on Russian. (Nashville Scene)

Unexpected Tailwinds (Aviation for Women)

The Translation Wars (New Yorker essay on Pevear, Volokhonsky, and the art of translation)

12 thoughts on “about the editor

  1. Congratulations! I am looking forward to reading your book! Thank you for honoring these brave women, who deserve to be remembered all over the world for their unique contributions in WWII.

  2. I am really interested to see a translation of Lieutenant Yegorova’s book, I think it would probably be the Queen of all Russian war memoirs, as very few good ones, in my experience, have come through in English. As a guy with a history degree, I’m utterly used to footnotes; they’re necessary, often interesting and sometimes highly hilarious.

    I’m heading over to purchase this book right now, I can’t resist. It’ll be a nice, but related change, from reading about Neall Ellis’ (a South African helicopter ‘ace’) exploits in Sierra Leone (flying a Russian Mi-24 Hind)in the late 1990’s.

    I am a bit of nut for these sorts of books, this will round out the various autobiographicals I have from guys like Adolf Galland, Hans-Urlich Rudel Chuck Yeager, Pappy Boyington and so forth.

    I am -pumped- for this book.

  3. Loved the book! Full of interesting details and insights regarding Soviet life, the War, various types of aircraft and, most of all, the people in her life.

  4. Rockhopper TV is a television documentary company based in London. Please see our website to get a better understanding of our history.www.rockhopper.tv

    We are developing an idea that looks at the great female pilots of the Second World War, including British and Foreign pilots. We are interested if you have any contacts with experts in Russia who may help us track down any living female Russian pilots who flew during WW2.

    I look forward to your response.

    Best wishes

    Steven Gower
    Development Producer
    0208969 1616

  5. Dear Editor and Publisher of Red sky and black death.
    I have just discovered the book surfing the net and I am looking forward to have some spare time to read it. As a plane modeller I am building a Polikarpov Po-2 and she will carry the name of Anna Yegorova. Shame it is too late to meet her in person.
    My best wishes to the heroine wherever she is.

  6. Adolf Galland was once shot down by a Russian
    female fighter pilot.

    One baling out, his canopy jettisoned, hitting and killing
    the Russian.

    Landing, he was astonished to find out that his victor
    was a female.

  7. Thank you Kim, Anna, and Margarita. A GREAT memoir! As to the politics of the time, do I recall some of the Russians referring to the Nazis as “godless Hitlerites”? Anyone living in their system who could label their enemies godless must have have considerable perspective about the whole thing. Very patriotic but not swallowing the whole hog?

    A great story and a great heroine for all of us!

    1. Thanks, Carlton! So pleased you read and enjoyed. Good points—there’s certainly some indoctrination going on, but that’s all part of the story. I think a lot of those veterans speak that way, with this possible reason: When you suffer so much for a “country,” don’t you have to believe in it, just a little, just to stave off the feelings of utter nihilism of doing all that fighting and dying all for no reason at all?

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